There is a lot of evidence that people who are more anxious, hostile or depressed are more likely to say they are sick and seek medical attention. There has been a great deal of controversy in research on the extent and circumstances in which these are causal mechanisms, as these personality characteristics are the cause of disease. As mentioned earlier, these people are more likely to feel, report and treat symptoms. However, these symptoms are often caused by real organic diseases, which are promoted by psychological causes. Aviary studies have focused on a methodological concern, but they have also introduced new social problems. In these studies, we found evidence suggesting that females played an important role in stimulating males to sing certain types of songs while females themselves could not sing. For example, we found that the most effective way to get a male to change his singing repertoire in the following year was to house him with females from a remote geographic area, while accommodation with men from the distant region had no effect (West-King, 1985; West et al., 1983a). It seemed that males needed a social incentive provided by females to learn new songs. The nature of their audience, not the nature of acoustic stimulation, played a role. Back to the star example, the male cowbirds needed access (hear the sound), Salience (the appropriate context), and the sequel (see the females respond). The impact of visibility on the agreement between judges seems obvious.
In fact, it seems to almost reduce to the obvious that the more visible features are easier to identify. However, the results have at least one important implication. Some psychologists, who do not accept that secular judgments of personality might have any validity, have suggested that an interjudge agreement is the result of conversations that judges have had with each other or with the subjects. Thus, these psychologists conclude that peer judgments are not based on the personality of the subjects, but only on their socially constructed reputation (Kenny, 1991; McClelland, 1972). This position is congruent with post-modern and deconstructivist positions that claim that there is no independent reality under the perception of the individual. Research shows that the differences between the characteristics, which are thus less and less visible, are not difficult to identify. Funder and Dobroth (1987) found that independent visibility of characteristics was strongly correlated (r .42, p < .001) with an interjudge agreement (self-others and others). Self-assessment and other evaluations were better adapted to the extent that the assessment of the characteristic was visible (see also Funder-Colvin, 1988).
Results that coincide with these have also been reported by Bernieri et al. (1994), Borkenau and Liebler (1992b, 1995), Kenny, Albright, Malloy, Kashy (1994), Kenny, Horner, Kashy and Chu (1992), Kenrick and Stringfield (1980), Levesque and Kenny (1993), McCrae (1982), Park and Judd (1989), Watson (1989) and others. The most visible characteristics are generally those associated with extraversion (z.B. Borkenau and Liebler, 1995) and social competence (Gifford, Ng, Wilkinson, 1985); least visible characteristics are related to non-visible attributes such as «Motivation at Work» (Gifford, et al., 1985). A large study led by Howard Friedman and his colleagues, led by Howard Friedman and his colleagues, of people persecuted from childhood to death in adulthood, has repeatedly found evidence that consciousness is the main personality leader of longevity. It is interesting to note that while the protective effect of consciousness decreases the likelihood of death due to accidents and injuries, it also protects against death due to diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer.